1968

Announcement Date: 01/01/1968

Malcolm Dole developed contemporary electrospray ionization (ESI) but with little fanfare. Creating an aerosol in a vacuum resulted in a vapor that was considered too difficult to be practical. Liquid can represent a volume increase of 100 to 1000 times its condensed phase (1 mL/min of water at standard conditions would develop 1 L/min of vapor)